Monday, May 14, 2007

Janacek's "From the House of the Dead"

A few of the corrections to the full score of Janacek’s "From the House of the Dead" according to the autograph manuscript in Brno - by Paul Mauffray

This past week, I attended rehearsals of Janacek's last opera "Z mrtveho domu" conducted by Pierre Boulez in Vienna (click here for more info about the production). Naturally, this is an excellent production with all artistic elements coming together perfectly. The Mahler Chamber Orchestra filled the Theater an der Wien to maximum capacity!

Of the interesting changes in this production, the "pants role" of Aljeja was performed by a young "male" tenor instead of the customary "female" voice, and I might add that this worked ideally! Boulez also had the 1st violins sitting on the right side of the orchestra where one usually finds the violoncellos!! This worked perfectly fine in the acoustics of the small Theater an der Wien, and I was told by a member of the orchestra that it is not a problem since the 1st violins are always clearly heard playing so prominently high above the rest of the strings (especially in this opera).

As Janacek's last opera, this is also one of the most complicated scores he ever wrote. Boulez conducted the latest edition (edited by Sir Charles Mackerras). This is definitely the best edition to use, however, there are still a few minor details (perhaps just misprints) which need to be corrected to agree with the autograph manuscript in Brno.

The following is a partial list of a few of the most prominent note errors:

Act I

3 & 4 bars before #4
2. fl. & 1. tpt. should play A natural (Bbb) instead of Bb [with 2. fg.]

16 bars before #17
2. tbn. should be D natural instead of Db

3 bars after #30
flute should be Ab instead of A natural

Act II

6 bars after #16
Vcl. should have G natural instead of A natural

16 bars after #27
should be „piu mosso“ instead of „meno mosso“


8 bars before #5
oboe should be A# (Bb) instead of A natural

3 bars after #33 (6/4)
2. cor. should have printed A natural instead of A#

Tuesday, November 28, 2006


It is not unusual to find discrepancies between the piano-vocal score of an opera and its full-orchestral score. There is even a greater chance of finding misprints or variants if a particular opera has been printed in editions by more than one publisher. This gets even more complicated when an opera has not only been revised several times by the composer, re-orchestrated and cut by another composer, and then published in two different countries.

Thus for Leos Janacek’s opera Jenufa (Jeji pastorkyna), I have already examined at least 12 completely different published editions and 7 sources autographed by Janacek or his copyists. This is a total of 19 copies of one opera, none of which is in complete agreement with any other! IS THIS PERHAPS A RECORD FOR THE LARGEST NUMBER OF DIFFERENT VERSIONS OF ANY ONE OPERA ?1?1? It is even normal that the four leading singers will show up at the same rehearsal with four different editions (not to mention possibly seven more editions for the other secondary roles!)
I have previously helped Universal Edition with corrections to the UE2000 vocal-score of Jenufa (corrected edition published in 2003), and I am still working on the many corrections to the 1996 full-score (Brno 1908 version) including corrections to the orchestral parts. I have been studying this particular opera since 1993, and I am constantly surprised at how every time I open the score I find some new curious detail, which is often a misprint or occasionally even just one of Janacek’s idiosyncrasies which previous conductors or editors have tacitly changed.

Every conductor looks at the music in a slightly different way, and therefore I am thankful to those of you who have helped me by pointing out questionable spots which you have already found. Before creating this blog, some of the conductors who have helped me with their advice and/or questions about Janacek operas have included Sir Simon Rattle, Arthur Fagen, Mark Stringer, and those with whom I have worked as assistant conductor including Bohumil Gregor, Jiri Belohlavek, Sir John Eliot Gardiner, and Leon Botstein. Special mention of course must be made to John Tyrrell and especially Sir Charles Mackerras who has long been my foremost inspiration. Already in 1993, the first recording I listened to of Jenufa was with Sir Charles, and it was his interpretation of Jenufa which led me to learn the Czech language and study Janacek operas in Prague and Brno.


best wishes,

Paul Mauffray

List of Sources to "Jenůfa"

Leoš Janáček’s “Jenůfa”
Chronological list of sources and abbreviations
including [old] & new signatures in Janáček Archive Brno

PL = original libretto by Gabriela Preissova, Šimaček edition, Prague 1891 L6

VS03 = authorized copy of vocal score as copied by J. Štross completed Jan. 25, 1903 [A 7426] & T 1 309

FS03 = authorized copy of full score as copied by J. Štross made in March 1903. (located only in Vienna)
At the end of Act II is written “corrected 10/1 1907” and initials “ L J ” Wien, L1 UE 376

OP = first set of orchestra parts from 1904 premier in Brno T I 306-308

KPp1 = first printed proof with corrections made by Janáček from December 1907 to
February 1908 (before publishing VS08) [A 7425] & T I 303

KPp2 = (all corrections mentioned in KPp1 appear already printed in this second proof) [A 7424] & T1 302

VS08 = piano vocal score by the “klub přátel umění” 1908.
This copy in the Janáček Archive was owned by Maria Calma Vesela [A 30.390] & T II 113

PFS = Prague full score copied by J. Košťalek in 1916. Unless otherwise noted, [A33.744] & T 1 301a-c
PFS always refers to original black ink (not Kovařovic’s retouching in red ink)

VS17 = second edition piano vocal score by “Umělecká Beseda”, Prague 1917
This copy was owned by Janáček but has markings in it by someone else. [A 11.470] & T II 111

KA17 = Universal edition piano vocal score by Jos. V. v. Wöss T II 85

FS18 = Universal edition of full score published August 24, 1918 (title page has 1917).
This copy shows in red ink what was original and removed by Kovařovic. [A 23.438] & T III 149

FS18bb = Universal edition of full score published August 24, 1918 (title page has 1917).
This copy in the Janáček Archive has markings in it by Břetislav Bakala. [A 39.736] & T III 130

HM34 = third edition piano vocal score by “Hudební matice” 1934
(further Czech editions such as 1942 and 1955 were based on HM34)

VS69 = UE piano-vocal score of Kovařovic version, published in 1969 by J.M. Dürr

FS69 = UE full-score of Kovařovic version, published in 1969 by J.M. Dürr [A 34.935] & T III 123

VS93 = UE piano-vocal score from 1993 which was discontinued and replaced by VS00 [A 54.309] & T II 354

FS96 = UE full-score of Brno 1908 version, published in 1996 [A 54.533] & T II 356

VS00 = UE piano-vocal score from 2000 which was discontinued and replaced by UE03

UE03 = UE piano-vocal score from 2003 (containing corrections by Paul Mauffray)

FS04 = reconstruction of original 1904 version by Marc Audus, UE 2003 [A 56.301] & T II 378

ChM = First recording by Sir Charles Mackerras based on Brno 1908 version (London/Decca)

JENUFA corrections, variants, & questions

Text color blue is used for:
definite and obvious misprints;
entries which appear to be editorial from J.M. Dürr and which are based on NO sources;
or places which Janáček himself corrected (for instance in KPp1 & KPp2).


p.9, #5 +5&7 instead of “Šte-va” (VS69, FS69),
should be “Šte-vo” (like PL, FS03, VS08, PFS, VS17, KA17, FS18, VS42)

p.9, #6 -7 Jenůfa, instead of “vě -še-la” (FS03, VS69, FS69),
should be “vě -ša-la” (PL, KPp1, VS08, PFS, VS17, KA17, FS18, VS42, VS00)
(in KPp1 & PFS “-še-” is crossed out and replaced with “-ša-”)

p.9, #6 -3 instead of “rá-no” (VS69, FS69), should be “rá-na” (PL, FS03, VS08, VS17, KA17, FS18, VS42)

p.19, #11 +3 Števa, C# here is correct (KPp1, VS08, VS69, FS69),
however, some editions mistakenly have C natural (PFS VS17, 42)

p.19, #11 +5 OSSIA: Cl. 2 has printed B natural (like PFS & FS03), rest of orchestra has C, Eb, G
perhaps should be same as Cl. 1 (sounding C natural) ?

p.22, #16 -2&6 Laca, instead of “žlu-tě” (FS69), should be “žlu-té” (FS03, VS08, VS17, FS18)

p.24, #17 “Tempo I” should be clearly marked here, not one bar earlier

p.26, #18 add footnote explanation of change of vocal parts from Kovařovic version

p.41, #28 -2 Jano, instead of “na-u-či-la” (FS03, FS69), should be “na-u-či-ly” (like PL, VS08, VS17, FS18,
HM34, VS42, VS69) in KPp1 & PFS “-la-” is crossed out and replaced with “-ly-” !

p.44, #29 +2 Vln. 2, missing # on g (in FS69, this note was tied from previous bar)

p.45, #30 -1 Cl. 2, instead of printed D#, C#, should be printed D natural, C natural,

p.53, #34 +4 Vcl. 2nd half of bar instead of Ab & Bb, should be all Bb & C (like FS03, PFS, FS69)
[FS18 has Bb & Cb (misprint), however C natural in Fl., Ob., & Cl.]

p.53, #34 +5 OSSIA (?): perhaps Fg should have no tie between half-note & quarter like FS69
(however FS03, OP, PFS, & FS18 all have ties)

p.54, #34 +6 OSSIA: (in first half of bar) only flute has E natural, sounds wrong w/ vlns Eb
Perhaps should be Eb quarter-note, then E natural half-note (like voice).
Due to lack of key signature on this page in PFS, many notes look like they are a half-step higher (violins E).
Since p.48 there has been a key signature of 4 flats which were not copied on subsequent pages in originals (!)
[at the bottom of the page in PFS a separate Eb has been penciled in. Perhaps correcting the flute?]

p.55, #35 -2 Vcl. instead of B natural (FS69), should be Bb (FS18) [similar key signature problem in PFS]

p.60, #39 +7 Laca, “za-hrá-bl” here is correct, however some editions mistakenly have “za-hra-bal” (FS03, VS17, 42, 00)
[in KPp1 Janáček crossed out “-hra-bal -” and replaced with “-hrá-bl -”]

p.67, #42 -4 OSSIA: Starek, instead of quarter rest & three quarters (like FS03, PFS, & VS17),
could be half-note & two quarters (like VS08, FS18, VS69, FS69)

p.73, #45 -3 Fg. 1 & 2 instead of D natural (FS03, PFS, FS69), should be Db (FS18)

p.75, #45 +2 OSSIA: Laca, instead of 4 quarter notes (like PFS, VS17, FS18, VS69, & FS69),
could be same rhythm as next bar (like VS08) [in FS03 original was like VS08 then changed to FS96]

p.75, #46 -3 OSSIA: Vcl. “sfpp” perhaps should be earlier on D natural (same as previous bar). However, NO “sfpp” was
found so far in ANY original sources in this or previous bar (not in FS03, OP, PFS, FS18, FS18bb, FS69)

p.80, #48 VS08 & VS17 have new vocal material: Jenůfa “za ní” & Stařenka “děv-či-co” !
(missing in FS96, like PFS, FS18, FS69) Originally in FS03, this material was later cut out.
VS17 has the following:

p.84, #49 +3&5 instead of “Šte-vo”, “Šte-vu-ško” (FS69), should be “Šte-va”, “Šte-vu-ška”
(like FS03, KPp1, VS08, PFS, VS17, FS18, 42, VS69) [not found in PL]

p.100, #55 -9 Števa, instead of “Je-nů-vka” (FS69), should be “Je-nů-fka” (FS03, FS18)

p.103, #56 +3&5 Števa, instead of “mne” (FS69), could be “mně” (FS03)

p.103, #56 +6 Fg. 1, last note instead of quarter, should be eighth note

p.105,#58 -2 VS69 has “non accel.” (where did this come from?), however, not in FS03, VS08 nor PFS
[VS17 = “Poco largamente”, FS18 = “meno mosso”, FS69 = “Meno mosso (non accel.)”]

p.138, #75 -2&4 Kostelnička, instead of “Šte-va” (like PFS), should be “Šte-vo” (like KPp2, VS08, VS17)
(in KPp1 Janáček crossed out “-va-” and replaced with “-vo-”)

p.138, #75 -3 Cor. 2, instead of B natural, should be printed Bb, & tied from previous note
(like FS03, OP, KPp1, p2, VS08) [in PFS & FS69, next bars already cut]
(in VS17 not tied, but perhaps only because here is marked start of VI-DE)

p.138, #75 -3&1 Vln.I., instead of 1st bar tied & 2nd bar not tied (FS03), should both be same ??? [not found in FS18, FS69]

p.142, #77 -4 OSSIA: Kostelnička, change repetitive text (to match VS17, FS18, 34, 42, VS69)
“Když mne ne-po-slech-neš” (this change was suggested to Janáček by Maria Calma Vesela in VS08
before Kovařovic, and is visible in PFS in black). VS17 has the following:

p.143, #77 +3 OSSIA: perhaps viola should be same as next three bars (FS69).
(FS96 = FS03, OP & PFS, however, changed in pencil in FS18bb !)

p.143-44, #77 +3-6 OSSIA: Kostelnička, change very repetitive text (preferably to match VS69 which is similar to PL)
PFS = “Zí-tra rá-no půj-deš do-mu”, VS17, HM34, VS42 = “Zí-tra i-hned dom mi půj-deš”,
FS18, VS69 = “Zí-tra rá-no půj-deš z do-mu”. Change was suggested by Calma Vesela in VS08
before Kovařovic based on: PL=“Zí-tra rá-no mi odsud půjdeš dom”. VS17 has the following:

p.145, #78 -1 Chorus Basso I., instead of treble clef, should be bass clef.

p.146, #79 -2 Cl. 1 & 2, instead of F natural, perhaps should be printed G natural, (sounding F only in this bar)
(like KPp1, p2, VS08, VS17, FS18, VS42, VS69, FS69). In PFS changed by Kovařovic in red, however,
NOT changed by Kovařovic in FS18. Original in FS03 black F, changed in red to G (by Kovařovic?).
[Thus FS03 and PFS are opposites !?!?]

p.148, #81 +2 perhaps Horns 3 & 4 should have accent “ > ” same as in following bars (?)

p.150, #82 +4 OSSIA: Stařenka, instead of Ab (like FS03, PFS),
could have Bb (like KPp1, p2, VS08, VS17, FS18, VS69, FS69)

p.153, #84 +6 perhaps Oboe should have “ p< > ” same as two bars later (?)

p.163, #88 +6 perhaps Eng.Horn should have “ < > ” same as fg., vla., &amp;amp;amp; vc. (?)

p.164, #90 +1&3 Cor. 1 & 2, instead of printed A, should be printed A#

p.164, #90 +6 Cor. 1 & 2, instead of printed E, should be printed E#

p.165, #91 +2 Cor. 1 & 2, instead of printed G#, should be printed F#

p.164, #90 +6 Cor. 1 & 2, instead of printed E natural, should be printed E#

p.165, #91 +2 Cor. 1 & 2, instead of printed G#, should be printed F#

p.168, #94 -4 only 2nd vlns have an A (FS03, FS69), perhaps should be G# (like VS17, VS42)
KPp1, p2, VS08 all are missing this note and have only C# & E in this chord
in PFS changed in black ink from A to G# ! (also changed to G# in pencil in FS18bb)

p.178, #101 +4 instead of “Je-nů-fa”, should be “Je-nů-fo” (like FS03, KPp1, p2, VS08, PFS, VS17, FS18,
VS42,VS69, FS69, VS93)

p.185, #104 +12 perhaps fg. should have “sfp” same as in previous bars (this bar does not occur in FS18 or FS69 versions)

p.187, #107-2 OSSIA: Jenůfa, instead of dotted rhythm (FS03, FS18, VS69, FS69),
could be straight quarter notes? (VS03, VS08, VS17, ChM)

p.188, #108 +3 OSSIA: Laca, instead of three quarter notes (like KPp1, VS03, VS08, FS18, VS69, FS69, VS00),
could be dotted quarter, eighth, quarter (like FS03, PFS, VS17, HM34, VS42, VS93)

p.193, #113 -1 OSSIA: Jenůfa, instead of half-note Fb (VS03, VS17),
could be quarter rest and quarter-note Ab (like FS03, FS18, FS69)

p.195, #116 +2-6 Cor. 1, instead of printed E natural, should be printed F natural, (like PFS, FS18, FS69)

p.197, #118 +2 Laca, instead of “mo-hí”, should be “mo-hl” (FS03, FS18, FS69)